Chandigarh, the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier. Picturesquely located at the foothills of Shivaliks, it is known as one of the best experiments in urban planning and modern architecture in the twentieth century in India.
Chandigarh derives its name from the temple of "Chandi Mandir" located in the vicinity of the site selected for the city. The deity 'Chandi', the goddess of power and a fort of 'garh' laying beyond the temple gave the city its name "Chandigarh-The City Beautiful".
The city has a pre-historic past. The gently sloping plains on which modern Chandigarh exists, was in the ancient past, a wide lake ringed by a marsh. The fossil remains found at the site indicate a large variety of aquatic and amphibian life, which was supported by that environment. About 8000 years ago the area was also known to be a home to the Harappans.
Since the medieval through modern era, the area was part of the large and prosperous Punjab Province which was divided into East & West Punjab during partition of the country in 1947. The city was conceived not only to serve as the capital of East Punjab, but also to resettle thousands of refugees who had been uprooted from West Punjab.
In March, 1948, the Government of Punjab, in consultation with the Government of India, approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital. The location of the city site was a part of the erstwhile Ambala district as per the 1892-93 gazetteer of District Ambala. The foundation stone of the city was laid in 1952. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pardesh, the city assumed the unique distinction of being the capital city of both, Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.
The basic geographical and demographic profile of Chandigarh is as under:
|Area||114 sq kms|
|Longitude||760 47' 14E|
|Latitude||300 44' 14N|
|Altitude||304-365 meters above MSL with 1% drainage gradient|
|Annual Rainfall (average)||1110.7 mm|
Winter Min. (Nov.-Jan, 2006) 10 C-160 C
Summer Max. (April-July, 2004) 270C-440C
|Prevalent Winds||From the North West to South East in Winter and reverse in Summer|
|Total Population (2001 census)||
9,00,635 (Rural population-92120 (10.2%)
(Urban population-808515 (89.8%)
|Density of population/sq. km.||7,900|
|Birth Rate (per 1000)||21.45 (2005)|
|Death Rate (per 1000)||10.22 (2005)|
|Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000)||44.13|
|Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males)||777|
|Decennial Population Growth||40.33%|